Facebook Twitter Linkedin
  home bred bred bred bred bred bred bred  
btn Academia Journal of Biotechnology
btn Journal of Business and Economic     Management
btn  Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants
btn Academia Journal of Environmental     Sciences
btn Academia Journal of Agricultural     Research
btn Academia Journal of Educational     Research
btn Academia Journal of Food Research
btn Academia Journal of Scientific     Research
btn Academia Journal of Microbiology    Research
btn  Engineering and Technology
btn Academia Journal of Pharmacy and     Pharmacology
btn Medicine and Medical Sciences



  1. Acad J Educ Res


Google Scholar

Related Articles

  1. Google Scholar

  2. PubMed


Research Article

Academia Journal of Educational Research 4(6): 095-103, June 2016
DOI: 10.15413/ajer.2016.0501
ISSN: 2315-7704
2016 Academia Publishing



Effect of Women Education on the Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) Services in Bangladesh: A Multivariable Analysis of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors.


Accepted 15th Februay, 2016


Md. Ruhul Kabir.

Department of Food Technology and Nutrition Science (FTNS), Noakhali Science and Technology University (NSTU), Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.
Umea International School of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Sweden. 


Email: ruhul109@gmail.com. Tel: 8801862626910.

The utilization of antenatal care (ANC) which can potentially reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, remains very low in Bangladesh and several factors predominantly contributes to the low tendency. The study aims to assess how women education affects the utilization of ANC services considering other probable factors which could also affect it. The study used national representative 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (2011 BDHS) data and considered 8,753 married women, aged 15-49 years who had at least one child in the last five years preceding the survey. In addition to descriptive statistics, logistic regression was employed to estimate the effect of predictors on the outcome variable. In order to control potentially confounding effects, three models were established in multivariate analysis to assess the effects of these potentially confounding factors in the association. Moreover, predicted probability of ANC visits in relation to mother’s education was estimated from the logistic regression model. Multicollinearity test was also performed to asses collienarity between variables. The result indicates that only 26.5% of mothers made recommended number of ANC visits to health professionals and the number decreased even more for illiterate mothers (19%). Mother’s educational level was found to be a strong determinant for seeking professional health care during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression estimated that, the chances of not visting any health professionals during pregnancy were almost 4 [OR= 3.8; 95% CI: 2.9-4.9] times higher for illiterate women compared to the women with secondary or higher education. Calculation of predicted probabilites also showed that the tendency to seek for ANC services increased with the improvement of mother’s education. Moreover, Household wealth status, partner’s education and occupation level, area of residence and birth order also had signifcant contribution for seeking ANC services. The study findings undescore the importance of mother’s education on the utilization of ANC services; therefore emphasis and priorities should be given more to address all the factors along with education contributing to the low ulization of ANC services in Bangladesh.

Key words: Antenatal care (ANC), women education, multinomial logistic regression, predicted probability, socioeconomic and demographic factors.

This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cite this article as:
Kabir MR (2016). Effect of Women Education on the Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) Services in Bangladesh: A Multivariable Analysis of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors. Acad. J. Educ. Res. 4(6): 095-103.

Copyright © 2016 Academia Publishing. All rights reserved