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Instruction For Authors

Please read and follow these instructions carefully; doing so will ensure that the publication of your manuscript is as rapid and efficient as possible. The Publisher reserves the right to return manuscripts that are not prepared in accordance with these instructions.

Submission of manuscripts
Authors should submit manuscript via e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office and a manuscript number will be mailed to the corresponding author within 48 hours. Please consult the journal’s home page for more information.

Academia Publishing only accepts manuscript through electronic submission and encourages authors to submit their manuscripts via email attachment including the text, tables, and figures using Microsoft word document.

Covering letter: The names of author(s), office or institutional full address including the corresponding author's email address, fax and telephone numbers should be sent in a letter format via e-mail message to the editor along with the manuscript. The name of the corresponding author should be marked with asterisk (*) for identification.

Research articles submitted to Academia Publishing should be divided into the following sections

Title page
Author (s) names
Authors (s) affiliation (s)
Abstract
Keywords
Introduction
Material and Methods
Results and discussion
Conclusions
Competing interests (if any)
Authors' contributions
Acknowledgements
Tables (if any)
Figures (if any)
Abbreviations (if any)
References

The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should include the authors' full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and E-mail information. Present addresses of authors should appear as a footnote.

Author (s): Authorship should be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work. Please note the corresponding author’s name and corresponding e-mails should be giving. Authors' name should be written by family name or surname, their given names should be shortened to initials.

The authors' affiliation (s) should be written below their names.

The Abstract should be enlightening and totally personal description, in brief present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The abstract should not exceed 350 words. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be employed, the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided.

The key words: below the abstract, about 3 to 9 keywords should be listed that will provide indexing references.

The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be comprehensible to academicians around the globe of scientific disciplines.

Materials and methods: Subheadings should be used. Methods, procedure or formula use should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only authentic procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and significant modifications of published procedures should be stated in brief.

Results should be presented with clearness and accuracy. The results, procedure should be written when describing the authors' analysis, theory test, investigation and experimental outcomes. Previously published results should be written as in present events. Results should be explained fundamentally with its outcomes.

The Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on this topic. State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.

Competing interests: Authors are required to complete a declaration of competing interests. All competing interests that are declared will be listed at the end of published articles. Where an author gives no competing interests, the listing will be ignored meaning the author do not have any competing interests. Authors must disclose any financial competing interests; they should also reveal any non-financial competing interests that may cause them embarrassment were they to become public after the publication of the manuscript.

Authors' contributions: In order to give appropriate credit to each author of a paper, the individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a colleague who provided only general support.

The Acknowledgments create an opportunity of appreciation of colleagues, institutions, companies, organization, grants and sponsorship. Acknowledgement should be brief.

Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend if any. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text.

Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.

Abbreviations may be added. In common, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors should use the solidus presentation (mg/ml). Standard abbreviations (such as ATP and DNA) need not be defined.

References: In the text, a reference identified by means of an author‘s name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses. When there are more than two authors, only the first author‘s name should be mentioned, followed by ’et al‘. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ’a‘ and ’b‘ after the date to distinguish the works.

Examples
Clifford (1978), Fernandez et al. (1971), (Griggs, 1990), (Parks and Harry, 1982), (Henderson, 1981; Mohammed, 1999 a, b; Anna, 1988, 1975), (Sires et al., 1967)

References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the manuscript (e.g., K. Gibson, University of Washington, U.S.A). Journal names are abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts. Authors are fully responsible for the accurate citing of the references.

Examples
Seye F, Ndione RD, Touré M, Ndiaye M, Boukraa S, Bawin T, Zimmer J, Francis F (2013). Effect of humic and application at different growth stages of kinnow mandarin (citrus reticulata blanco) on the basis of physio-biochemical and reproductive responses. Acad. J. Biotechnol. 1(1):046-052.

Saricicek BZ (2013). Effects of additives on in vitro gas production and fermentation kinetics of alfalfa silages. Acad. J. Sci. Res. 1(1): 016-022.

Chikoko L, Muparuri W (2013). Zimbabwe Stock Exchange and Efficiency in the Multiple Currency Exchange Rate Regime. J. Bus. Econ. Manage. 1(3):41-47.

AISE and CESIO (1999). Environmental relevance of anaerobic biodegradability of surfactants. http://www.aise-net.org/PDF/anaerobicBiopub1.pdf, p.6.

Foreign language items: Items listed in the references that were published in a language other than English will be listed as originally published and without translation. Any foreign language item in the text (e.g. the title of a book: a quotation) should be followed by an English translation (to be supplied by the author of the article).

Proofs and Preview: Electronic proofs will be sent via e-mail attachment to the corresponding author as a PDF file. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage.

Reprints: Authors can reprints copy of their published manuscript from the journal website, for authors ordering high-quality reprints or bound reprints for published articles may contact the editors to enquire information about ordering and charges.



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